– Coagulation is the addition of chemicals to change the properties of these contaminants so they increase in size and can then be removed by flotation, filtration and settling.- Coagulation is the process that destabilises the particles by neutralising surface charges and forms micro floc.- Flocculation is the aggregation of microflocs into larger aggregates (Flocs)


– Flocculation is the agglomeration of destabilized particles into a large size floc which can effectively be removed by sedimentation or flotation- Addition of flocculating chemicals may help formation of the floc.


Two main types of filter media are employed – surface filter, a solid sieve which traps the solid particles, and a depth filter, a bed of granular material which retains the solid particles as it passes. The first type allows the solid particles, i.e. the residue, to be collected intact; the second type does not permit this. However, the second type is less prone to clogging due to the greater surface area where the particles can be trapped. Also, when the solid particles are very fine, it is often cheaper and easier to discard the contaminated granules than to clean the solid sieve. Filter media can be cleaned by rinsing with solvents or detergents. Alternatively, in engineering applications, such as water treatment plants, they may be cleaned by backwashing. Self-cleaning screen filters utilize point-of-suction backwashing to clean the screen without interrupting system flow.

Filtration Types

Surface Filtration

Disc Filtration- Bag Filters and Strainers- Cartridge Filters

Depth Filtration

– Multimedia Filters- Dual Media Filters- Multi Media Filters- Multi Grade Filters

Disinfection & Sterilization

Disinfection vs. Sterilization

– Disinfection (Large Scale)  Selective destruction or inactivation of pathogenic organisms- Sterilization (Small scale)  Complete destruction of all organisms

Types of disinfection & sterilization:
– Chlorination

The primary purpose of chlorination is to disinfect water before it is used for drinking or other uses. Other purposes of chlorination are taste/odour control, prevention of algal growth, iron/manganese oxidation and destruction of hydrogen sulphide.

– Ozone

Ozone is one of the strongest commercially available oxidizing agents and is commonly used for the treatment of water in municipal and industrial process applications. The special advantage is in the environmentally friendly way in which it works, without the formation of harmful chlorinated by-products.

– Ultra Violet Disinfection

UV radiation can be an effective disinfection method. Disinfection using UV radiation is commonly used in wastewater treatment applications and is finding an increased usage in drinking water treatment. Many bottlers of spring water use UV disinfection equipment to sterilize their water.

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